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Few dates
  • 965 : a Spanish merchant relates the existence of a florishing commercial town.
  • 990: The Kingdom of Poland is created by the Piasts dynasty, converted to Christianism.
  • 999: Krakow is integrated to Piasts' kingdom.
  • 1038: Krakow becomes kingdom's capital.
  • 1241: The town is destroyed by Mongols.
  • 1320: First crowning of a king (Wladisław the Ist) in the castle's (Wawel) cathedral.
wawel
  • 1335: Kazimir the Great founds Kazimierz town, which will become the jewish town from 1495.
  • 1364: Kazimir the Great founds Krakow's university. (Kazimier's K, visible on the door of the Wawel royal castle's cathedral). Due to this university (named later Jagellon University), Krakow is still currently the students' capital of Poland.
k
  • 1386: Jagellons' dynasty. Ladislas Jagellon, great duke of Lituania, is baptised and crowned in Krakow. Poland and Lituania join together.
  • 1434: By wars, alliances and successions, Krakow becomes capital, in the reign of Ladislas Jagellon III, of a kingdom including Poland, Lituania, Bohemia and Hungary. It is the golden age of Krakow, which will rich it's peak in 1490, in the reign of Casimir IV, started in 1447. The Kingdom of Poland runs at this time fom the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.
europe_1490
  • 1493: Poland becomes "the Very Gracious Republic of Poland". The nobility, convening a diet, designates the king among European candidates. This is the end of absolute power. The country will then become the stake of fights between the great European dynasties.
  • 1609: The king Sigismund III chooses Warsaw as capital for his kingdom. Nevertheless, Krakow will remain the "traditional" capital, as Kings' crownings and buryings will still be celebrated there.
  • 1683: The king John III Sobieski leads Polish armies from Krakow and beats off Turkish armies in Vienna, which saves central Europe from a bloody invasion. (The Republic of Poland at the end of 17th century).
europe_1650
  • 1655- 1809: Krakow is occupied and ravaged by Swedish (1655), Russians (1772-1778, 1793), Prussians (1794-96), Austrians (1794,1796-1809). Poland is successively shared 3 times, in 1772, 1793 and 1795.Through this bad time, Krakow remains a symbol of the possible rebirth of the country. 2 times, the town is the first place where rebellion takes place (1768 against Russians, 1794 with Tadeusz Kosciuszko).
  • 1807: Krakow belongs to the newly created Duchy of Warsaw , thanks to Napoleon (1809). This is a time of hope for the country, a time which will inspire "Pan Tadeusz", the national polish epic. This hope will be short, as Russians and Austrians occupy the country from 1813.
europe_1812
  • 1815: Creation of a tiny independant republic of Krakow.
  • 1846: After a repressed revolution, the Krakow republic is annexed. The town will remain Austrian until 1918.
  • 1918: At the end of first world war, Jozef Piłsudski takes the lead of Poland rebirth. Krakow will be the first independant town.
  • 1939: Nazis and Sovietics share Poland. Krakow becomes capital of the German sector. 6 millions Polish (20% of total population, including 3 millions Jews) are exterminated by Nazis.
all1all2
  • 1945: The Sovietic army invades Krakow. In 1949, the giant industrial complex Nowa Huta is installed to the east. The current borders of Poland are set.
  • 1978: Krakow historical center enters among the 12 first places recorded as Human Heritage of UNESCO.
  • 1979: Karol Wojtyla, archbishop of Krakow, becomes pope John-Paul II.
  • 1980: Workers of Nowa Huta industrial complex join Gdansk workers strike. It is the birth of Solidarność(Solidarity) trade union.
  • 1989: Communism collapses..
  • 2000: Krakow is European capital of culture.
  • 2004: Poland joins European Union.